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Ottoman Empire


Italy United

By 1860, Italy was split into four states: the Austrians in Venetia, the Papal States, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and the Kingdom …


The Crimean War

The Crimean War lasted from October of 1853 to February of 1856. The war began as Russia fought against the Ottoman Empire …


European Revolutions of 1848

The European Revolutions started in France and spread throughout Europe and even some parts of Latin America. A number of factors were …



The history of Russia begins with a group called the East Slavs between the 3rd and 8th centuries. Throughout time, the Russian …


The Reformation

In 1517, Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation by nailing the 95 Theses to the Wittenberg church door. Pope Leo X excommunicated …